The Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows an eligible employee to take an unpaid, job-protected leave for a specified family and medical reason with continuation of group health insurance coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee had not taken leave. A few of the common points of FMLA that may be forgotten by the employer are outlined below.
Can the employer have communications with the employee while they are on FMLA?
Yes. Under the FMLA regulations, interference with an employee’s leave includes not only refusing to authorize the leave, but also discouraging an employee from using that leave. Asking or requiring an employee to work while on leave can cross the line to interference. There is no bright line test to what is permissible or not. The Courts have classified simple matters, such as an occasional phone call about a certain issue, an inquiry to close out a completed assignment, or an “unburdensome” request for materials to be permissible. On the other hand, it will probably be impermissible to require an employee to substantially update a file or complete a task you were hoping they would have finished prior to leave.
To summarize, although the employer can communicate with the employee while he or she is on FMLA, it is recommended that the communication be for simple matters only. Further, it is not recommended that the employer accept the employee’s offer to work while on leave. Even if the employee voluntarily wants to work, he or she may later claim it was not voluntarily and an interference charge can be filed.
If the medical certification is completed and returned is FMLA leave automatic?
No. A completed and returned medical certification issued by a health care provider does not mean leave is automatic. The employer needs to approve leave only if the employee has a serious health condition that makes him/her unable to perform one or more of the essential functions of their job. The employee is under the obligation to provide clear and sufficient information to enable the employer to determine if leave is required.
If an employee provides a certification form that is vague, incomplete, or contradictory, the employer has the obligation to request more information prior to leave being granted. Merely stating “I am sick” or “I am depressed” does not give the employer enough information to make the determination on leave. Do not be fooled by a doctor’s note that states the employee is “sick” or “needs a few days off to get better.” The doctor must provide medical facts to support the employee’s need for leave and why the employee is unable to perform the essential functions of their job.
Can the employer request a second opinion?
Yes. If the employer is contesting the existence of a serious medical condition, requiring the employee to obtain a second opinion can be required by the employer. If the two opinions conflict, a third opinion can be obtained. The third opinion will be final and binding.
Can the employer request recertification?
Yes. If the leave is for a period of more than 30 days, recertification can be requested. If the leave is for less than 30 days, recertification can be requested if circumstances described in the original certification have changed or there is reasonable concern of the need for the leave. In the case of intermittent leave, the medical provider should be provided the pattern of absences to determine if they are consistent with the serious health condition.
Suzanne P. Bartos focuses her practice on employment and labor law, insurance defense, municipal law, education law, and litigation.
She successfully defends civil rights, wrongful discharge, and discrimination claims in state and federal courts. She has defended municipal entities at both the grievance and arbitration level and has worked with a variety of administrative agencies and tribunals including the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Michigan Employment Security Commission, Michigan Wage and Hour Division, National Labor Relations Board, and the Internal Revenue Service. She has also achieved outstanding results for clients in premise liability, breach of contract, collections, warranty disputes, and consumer protection. Further, she is a trusted legal advisor to school districts and community colleges on a variety of educational and governance issues.
She may be reached at (734) 261-2400 or firstname.lastname@example.org.